Looking back on my post about the expiring federal unemployment insurance benefits, I realized I’d left out important parts of the picture.
One is the growing number of workers who’ve been jobless more than 99 weeks — longer than the maximum for benefits even when both federal programs were in full force.
The other is that lots of workers who lose their jobs through no fault of their own can’t get UI benefits at all.
In 2010, for example, only 44% of these workers got any benefits from their state programs, according to a recent brief from the Urban Institute.
The brief documents what we probably would have guessed. A very high percentage of the left-out workers are “disadvantaged,” e.g., blacks and Hispanics, single mothers, teens and young adults.
Both blacks and Hispanics are also unusually likely to be among the long-term unemployed, another Institute brief tells us.
We know from other sources that single mothers were far more likely to be jobless and actively looking for work last year than married mothers — or the labor force as a whole. This was also true for the 16-24 year old age group.
The disadvantaged workers are less likely than others to get UI benefits because states have eligibility rules that tend to exclude them.
These, in some cases, are related to the workers’ disadvantages in the labor market.
Virtually all states, for example, have minimum earnings requirements. The time period they use varies, but the earnings threshold will always disadvantage low-wage workers whose jobs weren’t ongoing and full-time.
Workers who got jobs through temporary agencies are often out of luck — even if they put in a full day, every day.
Only 22 states will provide benefits for workers who have to quit for reasons most of us would find compelling, i.e., domestic violence, the need to care for a sick or disabled family member.*
Not surprisingly, single mothers seem to fall into this group, though the Institute’s report isn’t altogether clear on this.
Many are also left out in the 23 states that won’t provide benefits for workers who are looking for a new job that isn’t full time. We know anecdotally that single mothers may have no alternative because they can’t afford the high costs of child care.
The Recovery Act gave states a financial incentive to eliminate such barriers in their UI programs.
Thirty-nine states and the District of Columbia adopted the first and only partial payment option — or already had it on the books.
But only 34 states and the District took the minimum three actions that netted them the full amount they could receive.
Just one and the District went for the fully battery. Still barriers for disadvantaged workers in both jurisdictions, however.
Some states have since tightened up their requirements — this rather than raise the imprudently low UI taxes they’d decided to collect from employers.
The end result is a patchwork of coverage.
But there are only five states in which more than half of all jobless workers got UI benefits in 2010. And only one — Alaska — where the rate topped 60%.
* Eleven other states will provide benefits for workers who quit because of domestic violence, but not because of a family member’s illness or disability.